Daily Current affairs and Questions from The Hindu & PIB - September 24

Shinkun La Tunnel



  • National Highways & Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited (NHIDCL) under Ministry of Road, Transport & Highways has speeded up the detailed project report (DPR) work on the World’s Longest High-Altitude Shinkun La Tunnel. 
  • Aside from the tunnel, the company has also sped up the DPR of its approach roads in UT of Ladakh and Lahaul-Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh.

About Shinkun La Tunnel

  • On completion of this tunnel, the Manali - Kargil highway will remain open throughout the year.
  • The 13.5 Km long tunnel under the Shingo La pass will enable all-weather road connectivity between Manali and Nimu via Shingo La and Padum.
  • The tunnel will provide all-weather road connectivity between Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir in Zanskar valley.
  • With the construction of the tunnel, inhabitants of around 15-odd villages of Zanskar Valley in Jammu and Kashmir will be relieved since the valley remains cut off due to heavy snowfall during the winter.


Group of 4


Foreign Ministers from the Group of 4 — India, Brazil, Japan and Germany — a group that is seeking permanent membership of the UN Security Council (UNSC), met virtually to further their objective.
The four countries stressed delivering concrete outcomes, in writing and within a time frame.

About G4 

  • G4 is a group comprising four member countries Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan.
  • Establishment of the Forum: The group was founded in 2005.

The Objectives of Forum:

  • The main aim of the G4 nations is to support each other’s bid for permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). 
  • According to the G4 nations, it is very important to expand the UNSC, in order to enhance the equitable representation of different regions such as Africa, Asia-Pacific, and Latin-America, as well the reform of UNSC will ensure the effectiveness of the organisation.

Current, Permanent Members of the UNSC:

  • Currently, there are five permanent members of the UNSC with Veto Power France, China, Russia, The UK, and The US. 
  • Out of five permanent members of the UNSC, three members France, The UK, and The US have maintained their seats since the UN founding and the People's Republic of China replaced the Republic of China in 1971 whereas Russia replaced the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1991.

Opposition:

  • Some countries are opposing the bids of G4 nations in UNSC. 
  • There is a movement named Uniting for Consensus, also known as Coffee Club, that developed in 1990 in opposition to the possible expansion of permanent seats in the UNSC and currently, its aim is to counter the bids for permanent seats by G4 nations in the UNSC. 
  • The countries opposing the bids of G4 nations for permanent seats in the UNSC.
  • Countries opposing the bids of Brazil are Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay.
  • Countries opposing the bids of Germany are Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Namibia, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and Spain.
  • Countries opposing the bids of Japan are China, North Korea, and South Korea.
  • Countries opposing the bids of India are China and Pakistan.
  • Headquarter:G4 nations don't have headquarter.


China pledges to be ‘carbon-neutral’ by 2060


  • China, the world’s biggest producer of greenhouse gases, has said it will cut its carbon dioxide emissions to nearly zero by 2060.
  • The goals, which include a pledge to reach peak emissions in 2030, are the most concrete ones yet announced by China, which is the world's biggest polluter and accounts for a quarter of the planet's greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Speaking to the United Nations (UN) General Assembly, Chinese President Xi Jinping renewed his support for the Paris climate accord and called for a ‘green focus’ as the world recovers from the COVID19 crisis.


About Paris Agreement 


  • The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance, signed in 2016. 
  • The agreement's language was negotiated by representatives of 196 state parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015.
  • As of February 2020, all UNFCCC members have signed the agreement, 189 have become party to it,and the only significant emitters which are not parties are Iran and Turkey.
  • The Paris Agreement's long-term temperature goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels; and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 °C , recognizing that this would substantially reduce the risks and impacts of climate change. 
  • This should be done by reducing emissions as soon as possible, in order to "achieve a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases" in the second half of the 21st century. 
  • It also aims to increase the ability of parties to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change, and make "finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development."
  • Under the Paris Agreement, each country must determine, plan, and regularly report on the contribution that it undertakes to mitigate global warming. 
  • No mechanism forces a country to set a specific emissions target by a specific date, but each target should go beyond previously set targets. 
  • In June 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. Under the agreement, the earliest effective date of withdrawal for the U.S. is November 2020, shortly before the end of President Trump's 2016 term.


Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Bill


  • Parliament has passed the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2020 with Rajya Sabha giving its nod. 
  • The bill amends the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010 which regulates the acceptance and utilization of foreign contribution by individuals, associations and companies. Foreign contribution is the donation or transfer of any currency, security or article by a foreign source.
  • The bill adds that the public servants will be prohibited to accept any foreign contribution. 
  • It provides that any person seeking prior permission, registration or renewal of registration must provide the Aadhaar number of all its office bearers, directors or key functionaries as an identification document. 
  • The bill states that foreign contributions must be received only in an account designated by the bank as an FCRA account as notified by the Central Government.


Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010

  • The FCRA Act, 2010 is an act of the Parliament of India, whose scope is to regulate the acceptance and utilisation of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality by certain individuals or associations or companies and to prohibit acceptance and utilisation of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality for any activities detrimental to the national interest and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • Foreign funding of voluntary organizations in India is regulated under FCRA act and is implemented by the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • The Acts ensures that the recipients of foreign contributions adhere to the stated purpose for which such contribution has been obtained.Under the Act, organisations require to register themselves every five years.







Multiple-choice question (MCQ)



1) Foreign contribution is the donation or transfer of any currency, security or article by a foreign source. Parliament has passed the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2020 with Rajya Sabha giving its nod. The bill amends the


a) Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2001
b) Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 1976
c) Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010
d) None of the above


2) Foreign Ministers from the Group of 4 — India, Brazil, Japan and Germany — a group that is seeking permanent membership of the UN Security Council (UNSC), met virtually to further their objective. The four countries stressed delivering concrete outcomes, in writing and within a time frame. The Head quarter of G4 nations is located in 


a) Delhi
b) Rio de Janeiro
c) Tokyo
d) None of the above


3) National Highways & Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited (NHIDCL) under Ministry of Road, Transport & Highways has speeded up the detailed project report (DPR) work on the World’s Longest High-Altitude Shinkun La Tunnel.  Shinkun La Tunnel is closely associated with

a) Manali-Kargil highway
b) Delhi - Amritsar highway
c) Delhi to Fazika proceeding to Indo-Pak border
d) All the above


4) The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance, signed in 2016. The Paris Agreement's long-term temperature goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below

a) 6 °C
b) 2 °C
c) 5 °C
d) 1 °C


Answers

1-c
2-d
3-a
4-b




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